Composite material definition and classification

First, the definition of composite materials

Composite materials are based on one material and the other material is a combination of reinforcements. The various materials can complement each other in performance and produce a synergistic effect, so that the comprehensive performance of the composite material is better than the original composition material, so as to meet various requirements.

The matrix material of composite materials is divided into two major categories, metal and non-metal. Aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and its alloys are commonly used for metal substrates; non-metal substrates include synthetic resins, rubber, ceramics, graphite, and carbon. Reinforcing materials include glass fibers, carbon fibers, boron fibers, aramid fibers, silicon carbide fibers, asbestos fibers, whiskers, metal wires, and hard fine particles.

Second, the classification of composite materials

1, according to the composition of points can be divided into metal and metal composite materials, non-metal and metal composite materials, non-metallic and non-metallic composite materials.

2, according to structural characteristics

(1) Fiber composite materials: A variety of fiber reinforcements are composited in a matrix material, such as fiber-reinforced plastics, fiber-reinforced metals, and the like.

(2) Sandwich composite material: It is composed of different surface materials and core materials. Usually, the surface material is high in strength and thin; the material of the core is light and the strength is low. But with a certain degree of rigidity and thickness. Divided into solid sandwich and honeycomb sandwich two.

(3) Fine-grain composite materials: The hard fine particles are uniformly distributed in the matrix, such as dispersion-strengthened alloys, cermets, and the like.

(4) Hybrid composite material: It consists of two or more reinforcing materials mixed in a matrix material. Compared with ordinary single-reinforced composite materials, their impact strength, fatigue strength and fracture toughness are significantly improved, and have special thermal expansion properties. Divided into layers mixed, mixed layers, mixed sandwiches, layers of one layer mixed and super-hybrid composite materials.

In the 1960s, in order to meet the needs of materials used in aerospace and other cutting-edge technologies, composite materials with high-performance fibers (such as carbon fiber, boron fiber, aramid fiber, silicon carbide fiber, etc.) as reinforcement materials were successively developed and produced. The specific strength is greater than 300 MPa·cm/3/g (4×10/6 cm) and the specific modulus is greater than 100 GPa·cm/3/g (4×10/8 cm). In order to distinguish it from the first generation of glass fiber reinforced resin composites, this composite material is called an advanced composite material. According to different matrix materials, advanced composite materials are divided into resin-based, metal-based and ceramic-based composite materials. Its use temperature reaches 250~350°C, 350~1200°C and 1200°C respectively.


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